By Mary Boyce
This quantity is a part of a three-volume paintings tracing the heritage of Zoroastrianism. within the set, literary, archaeological and numismatic proof is drawn on and native advancements are explored. examine is made from the Zoroastrian contributions to Hellenistic suggestion and to Judaism, Christianity and Mithraism. An excursus presents a reassessment of the Zoroastrian pseudepigrapha.
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Extra resources for A History of Zoroastrianism: Volume 1, The Early Period
Cumont, Textes et monuments figures relatifs au:>: mysteres de Mithra, Brussells 1899, I 229 n. 2. , the words of Shabuhr II: "I swear by the Sun, Judge of all the earth", in which sun and Mithra are plainly identified (see 0. Braun, A usgewahlte A kten persischer M iirtyrer, Bibliothek der K irchenviiter, 30). For a similar Sogdian oath, taken "in the presence of Mithra, Judge of creation" see Gershevitch, AHM, 34-5. For oaths taken in the presence of fire see Boyce, "On Mithra's part in Zoroastrianism", BSOAS XXXII, 1969, 27-8.
A and the sky in the Indian texts or ritual). a is so closely linked with him, it is reasonable to suppose that the primary concepts of the two deities were very much alike. a's name came from the IE verbal root ver "speak", *varuna being perhaps a lost common noun meaning itself "law" 75 In such compounds the shorter name regularly stands first, so that priority is not proof of pre-eminence. 78 Thieme points out that it is therefore misleading to read overmuch significance into any particular associations of this type, as has been done especially with regard to the pair "night and day".
Thus it is not a valid argument concerning the genesis of the Indo-Iranian Mitra to declare, as Gonda does (op. , 86): "I cannot possibly say how the god .. should as the originator of a reed used as a catheter have anything to do with a contract". 29 By a sound change peculiar to Avestan, Indo-Iranian rt > §;the Old Persian equivalent of the word is arta. On the basic unity of the Indian and Iranian conceptions see Geiger, Die Amg§a Sp11ntas, r64 ff. In the Vedas rta, a neuter noun, represents a principle rather than a divinity, and this was presumably the case in pagan Iran also.