By Orlando B. Andersland
Frozen floor Engineering first introduces the reader to the frozen setting and the habit of frozen soil as an engineering fabric. In next chapters this knowledge is utilized in the research and layout of flooring help structures, foundations, and embankments. those and different issues make this e-book compatible to be used by means of civil engineering scholars in a one-semester direction on frozen floor engineering on the senior or first-year-graduate point. scholars are assumed to have a operating wisdom of undergraduate mechanics (statics and mechanics of fabrics) and geotechnical engineering (usual two-course sequence). a data of simple geology will be invaluable yet isn't really crucial. This publication may also be valuable to complex scholars in different disciplines and to engineers who wish an advent to frozen flooring engineering or references to chose technical guides within the box. history Frozen floor engineering has constructed swiftly long ago a number of many years less than the strain of necessity. As sensible difficulties concerning frozen soils broadened in scope, the inadequacy of previous tools for coping turned more and more obvious. the appliance of flooring freezing to geotechnical initiatives through the global maintains to develop as major advances were made in floor freezing know-how. Freezing is an invaluable and flexible method for transitority earth help, groundwater keep watch over in tough soil or rock strata, and the formation of subsurface containment boundaries appropriate to be used in groundwater remediation projects.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Frozen Ground Engineering
Classification methods based on particle size, together with laboratory frost heave tests, have been used extensively for assessing frost susceptibility (Chamberlain, 1981). Details are given in Chapter 2. Useful Aspects of Frozen Ground Frozen ground properties useful to engineering projects include high strength in compression, excellent bearing capacity, and the impervious nature of frozen ground relative to water seepage. These properties are used by engineers in the design of ground support systems, foundations, earth dams, and other frozen earth structures.
The effect can be cumulative over several years, so that a foundation or wall can be displaced permanently. Thaw weakening is of special concern for highways and railroads. Thawing of ice lenses at a rate faster than meltwater can drain leads to a large decrease in bearing capacity. These factors require that the engineer evaluate the frost susceptibility of available soil materials. Both frost heaving and thaw weakening, indicators of the soil frost susceptibility, must be addressed in evaluating soil materials for use in road and runway foundations.
Larger ice masses may form as a result of processes associated with ice wedges and pingos. Frozen soil classification involves identification of the soil phase, adding characteristics associated with the frozen soil, and describing ice found in frozen ground. The mechanical properties of frozen soil at a given temperature may vary from relatively brittle to plastic, depending on the unfrozen water content. The presence of solutes in the pore water will alter the ice content and the frozen soil behavior.