By Maria Dolores Luque Castro; Miguel Valcarcel Cases; M T Tena
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Extra resources for Analytical Supercritical Fluid Extraction
7 summarizes the basic properties of supercritical fluids. 2). This is the origin of the good dissolving properties of supercritical fluids, where interactions between the fluid and solute molecules are quite strong. Supercritical viscosity values lie between those of liquids and gases, which endows SFs with more favourable hydrodynamic properties than those of liquids. On the other hand, their very low surface tension allows them to penetrate readily porous solids and packed beds. On constant column dimensions, the pressure drop along a supercritical fluid chromatographic (SFC) column is typically ten times smaller than it is in liquid chromatography (LC), but also, obviously, ten times greater than in gas chromatography (GC) .
Automatic leaching of soil and vegetable samples with recirculation and ultrasonic irradiation, coupled on-line to continuous derivatization/detection. SV: switching valve. For further details, see [33,34]. (Reproduced with permission of Elsevier Science Publishers) 200-300 ~l of extracting solution is circulated with the aid of an additional peristaltic pump. In the leaching position, the valve disconnects the circuit from the remaining continuous assembly. Once leaching is finished (after a few seconds or minutes), the valve is switched to have the leaching stream sweep the circuit contents to the derivatization/detection zone.
Transport) and physico-chemical phenomena involved in the leaching process occur is determined by such factors as the availability of extracting phase to all analyte species, which are not always present at the surface, the ionic displacement or indicator required to replace one analyte species with one or more molecules of extracting phase, the way in which a given matrix is related to some analytes, the solubility of the analytes in the extracting phase, etc. This is clearly seen in studying the variation of the leaching efficiency as a function of time.