By Bruce Leach (Eds.)
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Additional info for Applied Industrial Catalysis
At a ver y narro w rang e of conversio n or a s integra l value s alway s counte d a s average s betwee n zer o an d th e given conversion . 3. Temperature Response Temperatur e function s of a catalys t or catalyti c rate s ar e expresse d in a n empirica l Arrhenius-typ e for m b y calculatin g fro m th e rate s a n apparen t or overal l energ y of activation . Catalyst s wit h th e lowest energ y of activatio n ar e considere d th e bes t for tw o reasons . First , theoreticall y catalyti c actio n demonstrate s itsel f b y lowerin g th e activatio n barrie r and , second , for exothermi c reaction s th e permissibl e m a x i m u m temperatur e differenc e betwee n th e catalys t an d coolin g mediu m is inversel y proportiona l t o th e activatio n energ y [8, 9]: ATmax= (RTyE)(C0/C\ for first-orde r reactions .
Th e technolog y develope d an d th e lesson s learne d mus t b e incorporate d int o a syste m for managin g an d controllin g routin e catalys t production . Th e proces s mus t b e froze n at thi s point , an d a maste r proces s written . At a minimum , th e maste r proces s shoul d includ e th e element s show n in Tabl e III . A custo m catalys t rarel y require s year-roun d production , no r doe s it warran t th e level of instrumentatio n an d equipmen t specificit y foun d in today’ s majo r chemica l processes .
It is recom › mende d tha t som e measur e of activit y usin g eithe r th e actua l conversio n proces s or a surrogat e activit y test b e agree d upo n (see Fig. 1). Thes e specification s mus t describ e th e catalys t requirement s yet mus t b e reason › able . Th e payof f of a successfu l scale-u p progra m is a timely , economical , an d reproducibl e catalys t tha t meet s th e user’ s needs . It will no t b e th e ultimat e catalys t prepare d b y th e idea l process . Th e nex t ste p shoul d b e th e formulatio n of a conceptua l preliminar y TABL E I Element s of a Commo n Confidentialit y Agreemen t Names of the parties to the agreement Definition of what constitutes the information to be exchanged Commitment to keep information confidential and limit its use for other purposes Time period (term) Exceptions to commitment Where information is already known Where information becomes publicly known Third-party disclosure Where information is independently developed 34 E.