By Richard Olson (auth.), Frederick Burwick (eds.)
Frederick Burwick's modest yet entire and insightful intro duction is preface adequate to those brilliant essays within the background and philosophical feedback of rules. If we wish to know the way a few in quiring and clever thinkers sought to move past mechanism and vitalism, we'll locate Burwick's labors of assembling others and replicate ing on his personal half to be as stimulating as anyplace to be came across. And but his preliminary wary comment is correct: 'approaches', no longer 'attainments'. the issues linked to clarifying 'matter' and 'form' are nonetheless past any consensus as to their resolution. much more will we realize the various types and meanings of 'form', and this can be so even for 'organic form'. That clever scientist-philosopher-engineer Lancelot legislations Whyte struggled in a spot neighboring to Burwick's, and his essay of thirty years in the past can be a scientist's preface to Burwick and his colleagues: see Whyte'S accessory on shape (N. Y., Harper, 1954) and his Symposium of 1951 points of shape (London, Percy Lund Humphries 1951; and Indiana college Press 1961), itself prepared in honor of D' Arcy Thompson's classical monograph On development and shape. Philosophy and background of technological know-how needs to take care of those matters, and with the aggregate of hard-headedness and mind's eye that they de mand.
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101 Similarly, Cudworth seems to agree with the ancient writer De Mundo that, "If it were not congruous in respect of the state and magesty of Xerxes the great king of Persia, that he should condescent to do all the meanst 26 RICHARD OLSON offices himself; much less can this be thought decorous in respect of God. ,,102 Such arguments might incline one in favor of a spiritual agent intermediate between God and ordinary material beings but they are not conclusive. Two certain arguments, however, can be derived from natural phenomena and the nature of God.
56 Within the mechanical philosophy, then, shorn of its Epicurean assumption of the eternal existence and motion of all atoms, there is no possibility for an origin or beginning of the universe without appeal to God. Some first cause beyond the bodily elements of the physical world was necessary to turn "nothing into all things. "57 So the role of God as first cause of the creation is established. Just as the physical existence of the atoms or corpuscles of the mechanical philosophy seems to demand some transcendant first cause, so too does the initial motion which those atoms were created with.
And that besides the first there is required a second particular one, whose investigation will fully compensate the sweat and toyle of our study, and which we must not deny, though we cannot discover, but acknowledge it to be a natural one, however to  obscure for the invention of our perspicacity 68 Thus does Charleton oppose van Helmont, who claimed that the rainbow is "a Supernatural Meteor, ... having no dependance on natural causes 69 and those who claim that God supernaturally intervenes to cause the blood of a urdered man to flow in the presence of his killer.