Astrobiology: A Very Short Introduction by David C. Catling

April 3, 2017 | Microbiology | By admin | 0 Comments

By David C. Catling

Astrobiology is the examine of the beginning and improvement of lifestyles in this and different planets. What fascinates humans approximately astrobiology is that it seeks solutions to long-standing unsolved questions: How quick did existence evolve on the earth and why did lifestyles persist right here? Is there lifestyles somewhere else within the sun method or past?

The learn of astrobiology has develop into extra the most important than ever in contemporary a long time, as biologists have came upon microbes that stay in ever extra severe settings, corresponding to effervescent sizzling springs, in acid, or deep inside of rocks. Rooted in robust and rigorous learn, astrobiology comprises the paintings of microbiologists, geologists, and astronomers. during this Very brief advent, David C. Catling introduces the origins of astrobiology and demonstrates its influence on present astronomical learn and power destiny discoveries.

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2010). The genomic and regulatory streamlining of oligotrophic bacteria results in a decreased demand for 2 Marine Bacteria and Archaea: Diversity, Adaptations … 37 nutrients and energy and enables the cells to replicate under most limiting nutrient conditions. The fact that Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) arrays and Cas genes are under-represented in the genomes of oligotrophic bacteria suggests a low selection pressure of lytic bacteriophages. It has been suggested that the constitutively slow growing, small-celled bacterial taxa with small genomes cannot adapt to changing environmental conditions, but avoid grazing by protists or infection and lysis by bacteriophages and hence can maintain densities of 105 cells ml−1.

2008). 16S rRNA gene-based studies as well as genome comparisons show that marine members of the Chlorobiaceae (green sulfur bacteria) requiring NaCl concentrations >1 % (w/v) form separate clusters that are distinct from freshwater or brackish water lineages (Bryant et al. 2012; Imhoff 2003). Furthermore, various clades of marine bacteria, like the SAR116 group or the Roseobacter clade, have been shown to be capable of DMSP degradation (see next section). Within the photic zone, temperature constitutes an important driver of microbial community composition (Sunagawa et al.

Even across 41 different marine and coastal ecosystems in the Atlantic, Caribbean and Pacific that varied substantially with regard to salinity, nutrient content, temperature, and other environmental conditions, only 60 highly abundant ribotypes were identified by a metagenomic approach (Rusch et al. 2007). Based on the fragment recruitment of metagenomic sequences, Pelagibacter, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus genomes constitute a large fraction of the bacterial community in the Sargasso Sea (Rusch et al.

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