By A. Thomas Stavros, Cynthia L. Rapp, Steve H. Parker
This quantity is a whole and definitive advisor to appearing and examining breast ultrasound examinations. The e-book explains each point of the exam in detail—from apparatus choice and studying strategies, to correlations among sonographic and mammographic findings, to specific characterization of sonographic abnormalities. Complementing the textual content are greater than 1,500 illustrations, together with ultrasound scans, corresponding mammographic photographs, and diagrams of key features of the examination.
Dr. Stavros completely explains the physics of breast ultrasound and the precise probes and different apparatus had to produce high-resolution photographs of breast tissue. Chapters on breast ultrasound anatomy exhibit the anatomic aspect that may be noticeable on present apparatus and correlate sonographic and mammographic anatomic beneficial properties. next chapters describe exam approaches for comparing particular abnormalities and element the distinguishing good points of other cystic and strong breast lesions. additionally incorporated is a bankruptcy on Doppler characterization of breast lesions.
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Additional info for Breast Ultrasound
2–27), implants (Fig. 2–28), and solid nodules (Fig. 2–29) in comparison to conventionally obtained images. Because each image is obtained at multiple angles of incidence, the fibrous pseudocapsule around benign lesions is shown better and more completely, especially on the lateral edges, where critical angle phenomena normally prevent its demonstration with conventional imaging (Figs. 2–30 and 2–31). Other obliquely oriented thin structures, such as FIGURE 2–26 This figure illustrates the differences between a conventional beam (left) and a real-time spatially compounded beam (right).
2–17). Thus, coded harmonics helps distinguish artifactual internal echoes within cysts from real internal echoes. The nearfield reverberation artifacts that obscure implants are improved dramatically, allowing us to better identify abnormally echogenic extravasated silicone gel that lies between the fibrous capsule and the implant shell (Fig. FIGURE 2–19 The ability of coded harmonics to suppress speckle artifact and other artifacts and to make solid nodules appear more hypoechoic and more conspicuous than they are with fundamental imaging is demonstrated.
The single most important way to improve contrast resolution is to minimize volume averaging by improving spatial resolution throughout the depth of interest. However, manufacturers are also employing other methods to improve contrast resolution for high-frequency, widebandwidth, and high-dynamic-range applications such as BUS. RECENT TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN BREAST ULTRASOUND Automatic Tissue Optimization Dynamic image processing to remap gray scale over the range of gray shades actually present within the image is helpful in many cases and can decrease the appearance of gray haze in the image introduced by using highdynamic-range settings (Fig.